|First generation HTS wires, formed by extrusion of BSCCO, coated with metal.
|Second generation HTS wires, formed by depositing YBCO onto a metal substrate.
|Alternating current. Also ac.
|A cooling technique that removes alpha particles from a fusion reactor while capturing their energy.
|Unit of electric current. Also Amp or A.
|To heat and then slowly cool a material to reduce brittleness. Annealing of ceramic superconductors usually follows sintering and is done in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to restore oxygen lost during calcination. The oxygen content of a ceramic superconductor is critical. For example, YBCO with 6.4 atoms of oxygen will not superconduct. But YBCO with 6.5 atoms will. (from superconductors.org)
|Magnetic Flux Density, also referred to as magnetic field. In Units of Teslas. Related to H via B = mH.
|Theory developed to explain the properties of Type 1 superconductors by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer. Key elements of the theory are Cooper Pairs of electrons. (from superconductors.org)
|Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox. Also known as BSCCO – 2212. See BSCCO.
|(Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox. Also known as BSCCO – 2223. See BSCCO.
|Textured along two axes.
|Superconducting borocarbides are compounds containing both boron and carbon in combination with rare-earth and transition elements; some of which exhibit the unusual ability to return to a normal, non-superconductive state at temperatures below TC. (from superconductors.org)
|HTS compound containing Bi, Sr, Ca, Cu, O, and typically including Pb for the best possible TC . Also known as Bi-2223 or (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10,. Used in 1G HTS wires.
|Material put in place between metal substrate and superconductor material to prevent contamination and provide texturing.
|Continuous Columnar Pinning Centers. Type of pinning center produced by radiation damage, gives continuous columns of damage. See Flux Pinning.
|Ceramic superconductors are inorganic compounds formed by reacting a metal with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon or silicon. Ceramics are typically hard, brittle, heat-resistant materials formed by a process known as solid-state reaction. (from superconductors.org)
|CeO2 Cerium oxide. Buffer material for HTS. See buffer.
|chemical solution deposition
|A technique for depositing thin films by dipping or spraying a substrate with a solution.
|Cooling system in which the cooling substance is recycled through the system and reused.
|A superconductor formeby depositing a superconducting film layer on a substrate. See thin film and thick film.
|Conductors are materials that contain movable charges (electrons or holes) of electricity. When an electric potential difference is impressed across separate points on a conductor, the mobile charges within the conductor are forced to move, and an electric current between those points appears in accordance with Ohm's law. While many conductors are metallic, there are non-metallic conductors as well, including all plasmas.
|Two electrons in a material that couple together as a result of interacting with the lattice. Main cause of superconductivity in BCS theory.
|Maximum current through a material that allows it to remain in the superconducting state. Also IC.
|Minimum and maximum magnetic fields between which a material is superconducting. Also Hc1 (minimum) and Hc2 (maximum)
|Maximum temperature at which a material is superconducting. Also known as transition temperature.
|Composite reaction textured
|Also see pulse tube cryocooler
|A branch of physics and engineering that studies and produces very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures.
|Electrical current per cross-sectional area. Measured in Amps/m2. Also J. See JC.
|Chemical vapor deposition, A method of forming dense structural parts or coatings using the decomposition of relatively high vapor pressure gases.
|Diamond anvil cell, used to apply pressure to a sample in the laboratory, often to increase the TC of a superconductor. It is composed of 2 diamonds and a stainless steel gasket containing a small chamber full of fluid. Hydrostatic forces in excess of a million atmospheres can be brought to bear on a sample suspended within the fluid.
|A sputtering deposition in which direct current is applied to a cathode in a vacuum tube. Used for thin film deposition.
|Nano-particles, dislocations, stacking faults, or columnar defects in the crystal structure that can increase HTS critical current. See Flux Pinning.
|The ability of a material to repel a magnetic field. Superconductors exhibit strong diamagnetism below TC. In a few rare compounds, a material may become superconductive at a higher temperature than the point at which diamagnetism appears. But, as a rule, the onset of strong diamagnetism is one of the most reliable ways to ascertain when a material has become superconductive. (from superconductors.org)
|Cryogenic device using helium to cool systems to micro-Kelvin temperatures.
|A process of adding impurities to the crystal lattice of a semiconductor in order to control its properties. Some heavily-doped semiconductors are capable of superconductivity.