Glossary T-Z

T 1. Tesla, a unit for magnetic flux density. 2. May also refer to temperature, as in TC
TC See critical temperature.
TEM Transmission electron microscope or microscopy
Tesla Unit for magnetic flux density (B). Equal to one weber per square meter or one newton per ampere-meter.
Texturing Crystal grain alignment – a textured buffer layer is used to grow an aligned superconductor layer.
TFA Tri-flouro-acetate, a material used for MOD.
Thermal runaway A condition in which the current for a fully charged nickel-cadmium battery rises out of proportion to the impressed-voltage level. This condition is caused when heat from oxygen recombination causes the battery's voltage to drop as it gets hot.
Thick Film Coated Conductor 3 to 10 microns thick. A thick film coated conductor, say 7 microns thick would be expected to carry about 10 times the current carried by a thin film conductor, but it typically carries only a bit more current than thin film. Thin film coated conductor, about 1 micron thick, is the leading candidate for power transmission applications. It presently has Jc in the range of 1 to 2 Meg Amps per cm*2. A thin film tape, 1 cm wide and 1 micron thick might carry 100 Amps.
Thin Film Coated Conductor Thin film coated conductor, about 1 micron thick, is the leading candidate for power transmission applications. It presently has Jc in the range of 1 to 2 Meg Amps per cm*2. A thin film tape, 1 cm wide and 1 micron thick might carry 100 Amps.
Thin Film Deposition A method of fabricating ceramic superconductors to more precisely control the growth of the crystalline structure to eliminate grain boundaries and achieve a desired Tc. This can involve Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLD) or Pulsed-Electron Deposition (PED) of the superconductor material onto a substrate. The substrate and possible buffer layers support the film and can increase the Jc of the HTS directly in contact with it. The part of the HTS nearest to the supporting layer carries high Jc. Further away from the support (less than a micron) Jc falls off very rapidly.A variation of this technique can be used to increase the Tc of a superconductor by growing it on a supporting material with a smaller interatomic spacing. The supporting material acts as a molecular "girdle" to compress the atomic lattice of the superconductor, thereby raising its transition temperature.Superconductive tape/wire is made using thin film deposition technology.(from
Tl-1223 (Tl, Pb)(Ba, Sr)2Ca2Cu3Ox
Tokamak Fusion reactor design which uses a magnetic field to confine plasma to a closed torus.
Transport phenomena Any of various mechanisms by which particles or quantities move from one place to another. Three common examples of transport phenomena are diffusion, convection, and radiation.
Type 1 superconductor The Type 1 category of superconductors is mainly comprised of metals and metalloids that show some conductivity at room temperature. They require incredible cold to slow down molecular vibrations sufficiently to facilitate unimpeded electron flow in accordance with what is known as BCS theory. (from
Type 2 superconductor Also known as the "hard" superconductors. They have higher TC than Type 1 and their transition from a normal to a superconducting state is gradual across a region of "mixed state" behavior. This allows some penetration of external magnetic fields. All metallic compounds or alloys (except for vanadium, technetium and niobium), including the perovskites, BSCCO.
Ultra-capacitor Sometimes called a supercapacitor, an ultra-capacitor is an electrochemical capacitor that has an unusually large amount of energy storage capability relative to its size. These are of particular interest for hybrid vehicles and as supplemental storage for battery electric vehicles.
Ultraconductor Materials known as ultraconductors™ display room-temperature resistance many orders of magnitude lower than the best metallic conductors. Examples of these materials include oxidized atactic polypropylene (OAPP) and other polymers. Since ultraconductor™ is a colloquial term, these materials might better be described as "hyperconductors". The Meissner effect cannot be confirmed in them, but strong (giant) diamagnetism is in evidence. Some of them may actually find acceptance in high-current applications ahead of superconductors as a result of their low losses at ambient temperatures and pressures.
vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process A process for fabricating single crystal fibers such as silicon carbide with diameters ranging from 0.1-10 μm and lengths of 100 mm.
vortices See flux lines.
XLPE Cross-linked polyethylene (industry designation for dry insulated high voltage lines).
Y-123 YBa2Cu3Ox (see also YBCO)
Y-211 Y2BaCuO5
YBCO YBa2Cu3O7-d (also Y-123, YBCO-123, YBa2Cu3O7) A high temp superconductor material developed in 1991 by Fujikara. Used in 2G wires.
YSZ Yttrium-stabilized zirconia. A buffering/texturing material used in some IBAD processes.
Z Impedence (complex [ac] impedance of a circuit or component consisting of a resistive and a reactive part).